Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has a variety of potential uses, including as a root canal obturating material. Studies have demonstrated encouraging regeneration of periradicular tissues, such as periodontal ligament, bone, and cementum, when MTA was used in endodontic procedures.There are also several reports of its superior biocompatibility with periodontal tissues, excellent sealing ability in the presence of moisture,and appropriate mechanical properties as apical sealing material.
These encouraging outcomes from in vivo and in vitro studies have prompted many clinicians to consider the use of MTA as a root-end filling material and as a material suitable for repairing perforations and performing apexification. MTA has been used for the repair of lateral and furcation perforations and for the apexification of immature roots instead of Ca(OH).
MTA has an ability to facilitate normal periradicular architecture by inducing hard-tissue barriers. Formation of cementum surrounding MTA was observed even after extrusion of MTA into a furcation. On the basis of these findings, MTA may be an appropriate material for sealing immature root canals with open apices that could otherwise impose technical challenges in obtaining adequate obturation. A successful prognosis from conservative, nonsurgical treatment with MTA for such difficult cases can be of great benefit to the patient.